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06 - Difficutiles in Theory 06-08 - Means of Transition 40 According to this view it may be inferred that all vertebrate animals with true lungs are descended by ordinary generation from an ancient and unknown prototype, which was furnished with a floating apparatus or swimbladder.

We can thus, as I infer from Owen's interesting description of these parts, understand the strange fact that every particle of food and drink & which we swallow has to pass over the orifice of the trachea, with some risk of falling into the lungs, notwithstanding the beautiful contrivance by which the glottis is closed. In the higher Vertebrate the branchiae have wholly disappeared- but in the embryo the slits on the sides of the neck and the loop-like course of the arteries still mark their former position.

But it is conceivable that the now utterly lost branchiae might have been gradually worked in by natural selection for some distinct purpose: for instance, Landois has shown that the wings of insects are developed from the tracheae; it is therefore highly probable that in this great class organs which once served for respiration have been actually converted into organs for flight.
gills
gills

Swim Bladder
Swim Bladder

lungs
lungs

wings
wings
11 - Geographical Distribution 11-03 - Affinity of the productions of the same continent 10 A third great fact, partly included in the foregoing statements, is the affinity of the productions of the same continent or sea, though the species themselves are distinct at different points and stations.

It is a law of the widest generality, and every continent offers innumerable instances.

Nevertheless the naturalist in travelling, for instance, from north to south never fails to be struck by the manner in which successive groups of beings, specifically distinct, yet clearly related, replace each other.

He hears from closely allied, yet distinct kinds of birds, notes nearly similar, and sees their nests similarly constructed, but not quite alike, with eggs coloured in nearly the same manner.

bird
bird

egg
egg


The plains near the Straits of Magellan are inhabited by one species of Rhea (American ostrich), and northward the plains of La Plata by another species of the same genus; and not by a true ostrich or emeu, like those found in Africa and Australia under the same latitude.

Straits of Magellan
Straits of Magellan

rhea
rhea

La Plata
La Plata

ostrich
ostrich

emeu
emeu

Africa
Africa

Australia
Australia


On these same plains of La Plata, we see the agouti and bizcacha, animals having nearly the same habits as our hares and rabbits and belonging to the same order of Rodents, but they plainly display an American type of structure.

La Plata
La Plata

agouti
agouti

bizcacha
bizcacha

hare
hare

rabbit
rabbit

America
America


We ascend the lofty peaks of the Cordillera and we find an alpine species of bizcacha; we look to the waters, and we do not find the beaver or musk-rat, but the coypu and capybara, rodents of the American type.

Cordillera
Cordillera

beaver
beaver

Musk Rat
Musk Rat

coypu
coypu

capybara
capybara


Innumerable other instances could be given.

If we look to the islands off the American shore, however much they may differ in geological structure, the inhabitants, though they may be all peculiar species, are essentially American.

We may look back to past ages, as shown in the last chapter, and we find American types then prevalent on the American continent and in the American seas.

We see in these facts some deep organic bond, prevailing throughout space and time, over the same areas of land and water, and independent of their physical conditions.

The naturalist must feel little curiosity, who is not led to inquire what this bond is.

This bond, on my theory, is simply inheritance, that cause which alone, as far as we positively know, produces organisms quite like, or, as we see in the case of varieties nearly like each other.

The dissimilarity of the inhabitants of different regions may be attributed to modification through natural selection, and in a quite subordinate degree to the direct influence of different physical conditions.

The degree of dissimilarity will depend on the migration of the more dominant forms of life from one region into another having been effected with more or less ease, at periods more or less remote; on the nature and number of the former immigrants; -- and on their action and reaction, in their mutual struggles for life; the relation of organism to organism being, as I have already often remarked, the most important of all relations.

Thus the high importance of barriers comes into play by checking migration; as does time for the slow process of modification through natural selection.

Widely-ranging species, abounding in individuals, which have already triumphed over many competitors in their own widely-extended homes will have the best chance of seizing on new places, when they spread into new countries.

In their new homes they will be exposed to new conditions, and will frequently undergo further modification and improvement; and thus they will become still further victorious, and will produce groups of modified descendants.

On this principle of inheritance with modification, we can understand how it is that sections of genera, whole genera, and even families are confined to the same areas, as is so commonly and notoriously the case.

I believe, as was remarked in the last chapter, in no law of necessary development.

As the variability of each species is an independent property, and will be taken advantage of by natural selection, only so far as it profits the individual in its complex struggle for life, so the degree of modification in different species will be no uniform quantity.

If, for instance, a number of species, which stand in direct competition with each other, migrate in a body into a new and afterwards isolated country, they will be little liable to modification; for neither migration nor isolation in themselves can do anything.

These principles come into play only by bringing organisms into new relations with each other, and in a lesser degree with the surrounding physical conditions.

As we have seen in the last chapter that some forms have retained nearly the same character from an enormously remote geological period, so certain species have migrated over vast spaces, and have not become greatly modified.
03 - Struggle for Existence 03-03 - Geometrical Ratio of Increase 10 A struggle for existence inevitably follows from the high rate at which all organic beings tend to increase.

Every being, which during its natural lifetime produces several eggs or seeds, must suffer destruction during some period of its life, and during some season or occasional year, otherwise, on the principle of geometrical increase, its numbers would quickly become so inordinately great that no country could support the product.

egg
egg

seeds
seeds


Hence, as more individuals are produced than can possibly survive, there must in every case be a struggle for existence, either one individual with another of the same species, or with the individuals of distinct species, or with the physical conditions of life.

It is the doctrine of Malthus applied with manifold force to the whole animal and vegetable kingdoms; for in this case there can be no artificial increase of food, and no prudential restraint from marriage.

Although some species may be now increasing, more or less rapidly, in numbers, all cannot do so, for the world would not hold them.
06 - Difficutiles in Theory 06-12 - Organs not in all Cases Absolutely Perfect 70 A similar line of argument holds good with fruits; that a ripe strawberry or cherry is as pleasing to the eye as to the palate,- that the gaily-coloured fruit of the spindle-wood tree and the scarlet berries of the holly are beautiful objects,- will be admitted by every one.
strawberry
strawberry

cherry
cherry

Spindle Wood
Spindle Wood

Holly Berries
Holly Berries


But this beauty serves merely as a guide to birds and beasts, in order that the fruit may be devoured and the matured seeds disseminated: I infer that this is the case from having as yet found no exception to the rule that seeds are always thus disseminated when embedded within a fruit of any kind (that is within a fleshy or pulpy envelope), if it be coloured of any brilliant tint, or rendered conspicuous by being white or black.