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subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
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10 - On The Geological Succession of Organic Beings 10-02 - On their different rates of change 10 Species of different genera and classes have not changed at the same rate, or in the same degree.

In the oldest tertiary beds a few living shells may still be found in the midst of a multitude of extinct forms.

Sea Shell
Sea Shell


Falconer has given a striking instance of a similar fact, in an existing crocodile associated with many strange and lost mammals and reptiles in the sub-Himalayan deposits.

Hugh Falconer
Hugh Falconer

crocodile
crocodile

mammals
mammals

Reptile
Reptile

Himalaya
Himalaya


The Silurian Lingula differs but little from the living species of this genus; whereas most of the other Silurian Molluscs and all the Crustaceans have changed greatly.

lingula
lingula

mollusca
mollusca

crustacean
crustacean


The productions of the land seem to change at a quicker rate than those of the sea, of which a striking instance has lately been observed in Switzerland.

Switzerland
Switzerland


There is some reason to believe that organisms, considered high in the scale of nature, change more quickly than those that are low: though there are exceptions to this rule.

The amount of organic change, as Pictet has remarked, does not strictly correspond with the succession of our geological formations; so that between each two consecutive formations, the forms of life have seldom changed in exactly the same degree.

Yet if we compare any but the most closely related formations, all the species will be found to have undergone some change.

When a species has once disappeared from the face of the earth, we have reason to believe that the same identical form never reappears.

The strongest apparent exception to this latter rule, is that of the so-called `colonies' of M. Barrande, which intrude for a period in the midst of an older formation, and then allow the pre-existing fauna to reappear; but Lyell's explanation, namely, that it is a case of temporary migration from a distinct geographical province, seems to me satisfactory.

Joachim Barrande
Joachim Barrande

Sir Charles Lyell
Sir Charles Lyell


These several facts accord well with my theory.

I believe in no fixed law of development, causing all the inhabitants of a country to change abruptly, or simultaneously, or to an equal degree.

The process of modification must be extremely slow.

The variability of each species is quite independent of that of all others.

Whether such variability be taken advantage of by natural selection, and whether the variations be accumulated to a greater or lesser amount, thus causing a greater or lesser amount of modification in the varying species, depends on many complex contingencies, on the variability being of a beneficial nature, on the power of intercrossing, on the rate of breeding, on the slowly changing physical conditions of the country, and more especially on the nature of the other inhabitants with which the varying species comes into competition.

Hence it is by no means surprising that one species should retain the same identical form much longer than others; or, if changing, that it should change less.

We see the same fact in geographical distribution; for instance, in the land-shells and coleopterous insects of Madeira having come to differ considerably from their nearest allies on the continent of Europe, whereas the marine shells and birds have remained unaltered.

Land Shell
Land Shell

Madeira
Madeira

europe
europe

Sea Shell
Sea Shell

bird
bird


We can perhaps understand the apparently quicker rate of change in terrestrial and in more highly organised productions compared with marine and lower productions, by the more complex relations of the higher beings to their organic and inorganic conditions of life, as explained in a former chapter.

When many of the inhabitants of a country have become modified and improved, we can understand, on the principle of competition, and on that of the many all-important relations of organism to organism, that any form which does not become in some degree modified and improved, will be liable to be exterminated.

Hence we can see why all the species in the same region do at last, if we look to wide enough intervals of time, become modified; for those which do not change will become extinct.

In members of the same class the average amount of change, during long and equal periods of time, may, perhaps, be nearly the same; but as the accumulation of long-enduring fossiliferous formations depends on great masses of sediment having been deposited on areas whilst subsiding, our formations have been almost necessarily accumulated at wide and irregularly intermittent intervals; consequently the amount of organic change exhibited by the fossils embedded in consecutive formations is not equal.

Each formation, on this view, does not mark a new and complete act of creation, but only an occasional scene, taken almost at hazard, in a slowly changing drama.
12 - Geographical Distribution -- continued 12-50 - On colonisation from the nearest source with subsequent modification 50 Some species, however, might spread and yet retain the same character throughout the group, just as we see on continents some species' spreading widely and remaining the same.

The really surprising fact in this case of the Galapagos Archipelago, and in a lesser degree in some analogous instances, is that the new species formed in the separate islands have not quickly spread to the other islands.

But the islands, though in sight of each other, are separated by deep arms of the sea, in most cases wider than the British Channel, and there is no reason to suppose that they have at any former period been continuously united.

The currents of the sea are rapid and sweep across the archipelago, and gales of wind are extraordinarily rare; so that the islands are far more effectually separated from each other than they appear to be on a map.

Nevertheless a good many species, both those found in other parts of the world and those confined to the archipelago, are common to the several islands, and we may infer from certain facts that these have probably spread from some one island to the others.

But we often take, I think, an erroneous view of the probability of closely allied species invading each other's territory, when put into free intercommunication.

Undoubtedly if one species has any advantage whatever over another, it will in a very brief time wholly or in part supplant it; but if both are equally well fitted for their own places in nature, both probably will hold their own places and keep separate for almost any length of time.

Being familiar with the fact that many species, naturalised through man's agency, have spread with astonishing rapidity over new countries, we are apt to infer that most species would thus spread; but we should remember that the forms which become naturalised in new countries are not generally closely allied to the aboriginal inhabitants, but are very distinct species, belonging in a large proportion of cases, as shown by Alph. de Candolle, to distinct genera.

Alphonse de Candolle
Alphonse de Candolle
05 - Laws of Variation 05-06 - False Correlation 20 Some other correlations are apparently due to the manner in which natural selection can alone act.

For instance, Alph. de Candolle has remarked that winged seeds are never found in fruits which do not open; I should explain this rule by the impossibility of seeds gradually becoming winged through natural selection, unless the capsules were open; for in this case alone could the seeds, which were a little better adapted to be wafted by the wind, gain an advantage over others less well fitted for wide dispersal.

Alphonse de Candolle
Alphonse de Candolle

winged thistle seed
winged thistle seed
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-08 - Breeds of the Domestic Pigeons, their Differences and Origin 50 Some facts in regard to the colouring of pigeons well deserve consideration.

The rock-pigeon is of a slaty-blue, with white loins; but the Indian sub-species, C. intermedia of Strickland, has this part bluish. The tail has a terminal dark bar, with the outer feathers externally edged at the base with white. The wings have two black bars.

Some semi-domestic breeds, and some truly wild breeds, have, besides the two black bars, the wings chequered with black.

These several marks do not occur together in any other species of the whole family.

Now, in every one of the domestic breeds, taking thoroughly well-bred birds, all the above marks, even to the white edging of the outer tail-feathers, sometimes concur perfectly developed.

Moreover, when birds belonging to two or more distinct breeds are crossed, none of which are blue or have any of the above-specified marks, the mongrel offspring are very apt suddenly to acquire these characters.

To give one instance out of several which I have observed:- I crossed some white fantails, which breed very true, with some black barbs- and it so happens that blue varieties of barbs are so rare that I never heard of an instance in England; and the mongrels were black, brown, and mottled.

I also crossed a barb with a spot, which is a white bird with a red tail and red spot on the forehead, and which notoriously breeds very true; the mongrels were dusky and mottled.

I then crossed one of the mongrel barb-fantails with a mongrel barb-spot, and they produced a bird of as beautiful a blue colour, with the white loins, double black wing-bar, and barred and white-edged tail-feathers, as any wild-rock pigeon!

We can understand these facts, on the well-known principle of reversion to ancestral characters, if all the domestic breeds are descended from the rock-pigeon.

But if we deny this, we must make one of the two following highly improbable suppositions.

Either, first, that all the several imagined aboriginal stocks were coloured and marked like the rock-pigeon, although no other existing species is thuscoloured and marked, so that in each separate breed there might be a tendency to revert to the very same colours and markings.

Or, secondly, that each breed, even the purest, has within a dozen, or at most within a score, of generations, been crossed by the rock-pigeon: I say within dozen or twenty generations, for no instance is known of crossed descendants reverting to an ancestor of foreign blood, removed by a greater number of generations.

In a breed which has been crossed only once, the tendency to revert to any character derived from such a cross will naturally become less and less, as in each succeeding generation there will be less of the foreign blood; but when there has been no cross, and there is a tendency in the breed to revert to a character which was lost during some former generation, this tendency, for all that we can see to the contrary, may be transmitted undiminished for an indefinite number of generations.

These two distinct cases of reversion are often confounded
together by those who have written on inheritance.

Rock Pigeon
Rock Pigeon