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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
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id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 81 of 119 (4/p)
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05 - Laws of Variation 05-04 - Correlation of Growth 10 I mean by this expression that the whole organisation is so tied together during its growth and development, that when slight variations in any one part occur, and are accumulated through natural selection, other parts become modified.

This is a very important subject, most imperfectly understood, and no doubt wholly different classes of facts may be here easily confounded together.

We shall presently see that simple inheritance often gives the false appearance of correlation.

One of the most obvious real cases is, that variations of structure arising in the young or larvae naturally tend to affect the structure of the mature animal.

larva
larva


The several parts of the body which are homologous, and which, at an early embryonic period, are identical in structure, and which are necessarily exposed to similar conditions, seem eminently liable to vary in a like manner: we see this in the right and left sides of the body varying in the same manner; in the front and hind legs, and even in the jaws and limbs, varying together, for the lower jaw is believed by some anatomists to be homologous with the limbs.
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These tendencies, I do not doubt, may be mastered more or less completely by natural selection; thus a family of stags once existed with an antler only on one side; and if this had been of any great use to the breed, it might probably have been rendered permanent by selection.
04 - Natural Selection 04-06 - On the generality of Intercross Between Individuals of the Same Species 30 I may add, that, according to Mr. Pierce, there are two varieties of the wolf inhabiting the Catskill Mountains, in the United States, one with a light greyhound-like form, which pursues deer, and the other more bulky, with shorter legs, which more frequently attacks the shepherd's flocks.

wolf
wolf

greyhound
greyhound

deer
deer

sheep
sheep
04 - Natural Selection 04-07 - Illustrations of the Action of Natural Selection: 20 I may add, that, according to Mr. Pierce, there are two varieties of the wolf inhabiting the Catskill Mountains, in the United States, one with a light greyhound-like form, which pursues deer, and the other more bulky, with shorter legs, which more frequently attacks the shepherd's flocks.

wolf
wolf

greyhound
greyhound

deer
deer

sheep
sheep
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-01 - Causes of Variability 30 I may add, that as some organisms breed freely under the most unnatural conditions (for instance, rabbits and ferrets kept in hutches), showing that their reproductive organs are not easily affected;

rabbit
rabbit

ferret
ferret


so will some animals and plants withstand domestication or cultivation, and vary very slightly- perhaps hardly more than in a state of nature. Some naturalists have maintained that all variations are connected with the act of sexual reproduction;

but this is certainly an error; for I have given in another work a long list of "sporting plants," as they are called by gardeners;- that is, of plants which have suddenly produced a single bud with a new and sometimes widely different character from that of the other buds on the same plant.

These bud variations, as they may be named, can be propagated by grafts, offsets, &c., and sometimes by seed.

graft
graft


They occur rarely under nature, but are far from rare under culture.

As a single bud out of the many thousands, produced year after year on the same tree under uniform conditions, has been known suddenly to assume a new character; and as buds on distinct trees, growing under different conditions, have sometimes yielded nearly the same variety- for instance, buds on peach-trees producing nectarines, and buds on common roses producing moss-roses- we clearly see that the nature of the conditions is of subordinate importance in comparison with the nature of the organism in determining each particular form of variation;-
bud
bud

tree
tree

peach
peach

nectarine
nectarine

rose
rose

Moss Rose
Moss Rose


perhaps of not more importance than the nature of the spark, by which a mass of combustible matter is ignited, has in determining the nature of the flames.
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