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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
Column Type #Values Column Stats
id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 10 of 119 (4/p)
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01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-01 - Causes of Variability 20 As far as I am able to judge, after long attending to the subject, the conditions of life appear to act in two ways,- directly on the whole organization or on certain parts alone, and indirectly by affecting the reproductive system.

With respect to the direct action, we must bear in mind that in every case, as Professor Weismann has lately insisted, and as I have incidentally shown in my work on Variation under Domestication, there are two factors: namely, the nature of the organism, and the nature of the conditions.

August Weismann
August Weismann


The former seems to be much the more important; for nearly similar variations sometimes arise under, as far as we can judge, dissimilar conditions; and, on the other hand, dissimilar variations arise under conditions which appear to be nearly uniform.

The effects on the offspring are either definite or indefinite.

They may be considered as definite when all or nearly all the offspring of individuals exposed to certain conditions during several generations are modified in the same manner.

It is extremely difficult to come to any conclusion in regard to the extent of the changes which have been thus definitely induced.

There can, however, be little doubt about many slight changes,- such as size from the amount of food, colour from the nature of the food, thickness of the skin and hair from climate, &c.

Each of the endless variations which we see in the plumage of our fowls must have had some efficient cause; and if the same cause were to act uniformly during a long series of generations on. many individuals, all probably would be modified in the same manner.

fowl
fowl


Such facts as the complex and extraordinary out-growths which variably follow from the insertion of a minute drop of poison by a gall-producing insect, show us what singular modifications might result in the case of plants from a chemical change in the nature of the sap. Indefinite variability is a much more common result of changed conditions than definite variability, and has probably played a more important part in the formation of our domestic races.

sap
sap
04 - Natural Selection 04-13 - Convergence of Character 40 As far as mere inorganic conditions are concerned, it seems probable that a sufficient number of species would soon become adapted to all considerable diversities of heat, moisture, &c.; but I fully admit that the mutual relations of organic beings are more important; and as the number of species in any country goes on increasing, the organic conditions of life must become more and more complex.
14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-02 - Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour 30 As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.

And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play.

It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of proof, that the amount of variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity.

Man, though acting on external characters alone and often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding up mere individual differences in his domestic productions; and every one admits that there are at least individual differences in species under nature.

But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works.

No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and subspecies, and species.

Let it be observed how naturalists differ in the rank which they assign to the many representative forms in Europe and North America.

Europe
Europe

North America
North America
04 - Natural Selection 04-11 - Divergence of Character 20 As has always been my practice, I have sought light on this head from our domestic productions.

We shall here find something analogous.

It will be admitted that the production of races so different as short-horn and Hereford cattle, race and cart horses, the several breeds of pigeons, &c., could never have been effected by the mere chance accumulation of similar variations during many successive generations.

Hereford Cow
Hereford Cow

Race Horse
Race Horse


In practice, a fancier is, for instance, struck by a pigeon having a slightly shorter beak; another fancier is struck by a pigeon having a rather longer beak; and on the acknowledged principle that "fanciers do not and will not admire a medium standard, but like extremes," they both go on (as has actually occurred with the sub-breeds of the tumbler-pigeon) choosing and breeding from birds with longer and longer beaks, or with shorter and shorter beaks.

pigeon
pigeon


Again, we may suppose that at an early period of history, the men of one nation or district required swifter horses, whilst those of another required stronger and bulkier horses.

Dray Horse
Dray Horse


The early differences would be very slight; but, in the course of time from the continued selection of swifter horses in the one case, and of stronger ones in the other, the differences would become greater, and would be noted as forming two sub-breeds.

Ultimately, after the lapse of centuries, these sub-breeds would become converted into two well-established and distinct breeds.

As the differences became greater, the inferior animals with intermediate characters, being neither swift nor very strong, would not have been used for breeding, and will thus have tended to disappear.

Here, then, we see in man's productions the action of what may be called the principle of divergence, causing differences, at first barely appreciable, steadily to increase, and the breeds to diverge in character, both from each other and from their common parent.