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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
Column Type #Values Column Stats
id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 86 of 119 (4/p)
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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies order by ordinal desc limit 340, 4 (Page 86: Row)
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07 - Instinct 07-01 - Instincts comparable with habits, but different in their origin 20 As in repeating a well-known song, so in instincts, one action follows another by a sort of rhythm; if a person be interrupted in a song, or in repeating anything by rote, he is generally forced to go back to recover the habitual train of thought: so P. Huber found it was with a caterpillar, which makes a very complicated hammock; for if he took a caterpillar which had completed its hammock up to, say, the sixth stage of construction, and put it into a hammock completed up only to the third stage, the caterpillar simply re-performed the fourth, fifth, and sixth stages of construction.

If, however, a caterpillar were taken out of a hammock made up, for instance, to the third stage, and were put into one finished up to the sixth stage, so that much of its work was already done for it, far from feeling the benefit of this, it was much embarrassed, and, in order to complete its hammock, seemed forced to start from the third stage, where it had left off, and thus tried to complete the already finished work.

caterpillar
caterpillar


If we suppose any habitual action to become inherited and I think it can be shown that this does sometimes happen then the resemblance between what originally was a habit and an instinct becomes so close as not to be distinguished.

If Mozart, instead of playing the piano forte at three years old with wonderfully little practice, had played a tune with no practice at all, he might truly be said to have done so instinctively.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart


But it would be the most serious error to suppose that the greater number of instincts have been acquired by habit in one generation, and then transmitted by inheritance to succeeding generations.

It can be clearly shown that the most wonderful instincts with which we are acquainted, namely, those of the hive-bee and of many ants, could not possibly have been thus acquired.

bee
bee


ant
ant
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-02 - Effects of Habit 10 Changed habits produce an inherited effect, as in the period of the flowering of plants when transported from one climate to another. With animals the increased use or disuse of parts has had a more marked influence; thus I find in the domestic duck that the bones of the wing weigh less and the bones of the leg more, in proportion to the whole skeleton, than do the same bones in the wild-duck;
duck
duck


and this change may be safely attributed to the domestic duck flying much less, and walking more, than its wild parents.
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-04 - Inheritance 10 The results of the various, unknown, or but dimly understood laws of variation are infinitely complex and diversified.

It is well worth while carefully to study the several treatises on some of our old cultivated plants, as on the hyacinth, potato, even the dahlia, &c. and it is really surprising to note the endless points of structure and constitution in which the varieties and sub-varieties differ slightly from each other.
hyacinth
hyacinth

potato
potato

dahlia
dahlia


The whole organisation seems to have become plastic, and departs in a slight degree from that of the parental type.
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01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-05 -Character of Domestic Varieties 10 When we look to the hereditary varieties or races of our domestic animals and plants, and compare them with closely allied species, we generally perceive in each domestic race, as already remarked, less uniformity of character than in true species.
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Domestic races often have a somewhat monstrous character; by which I mean, that, although differing from each other, and from other species of the same genus, in several trifling respects, they often differ in an extreme degree in some one part, both when compared one with another, and more especially when compared with the species under nature to which they are nearest allied. With these exceptions (and with that of the perfect fertility of varieties when crossed,- a subject hereafter to be discussed), domestic races of the same species differ from each other in the same manner as do the closely-allied species of the same genus in a state of nature, but the differences in most cases are less in degree.

This must be admitted as true, for the domestic races of many animals and plants have been ranked by some competent judges as the descendants of aboriginally distinct species, and by other competent judges as mere varieties.