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01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-09 - Principles of Selection anciently followed, and their Effects 10 Let us now briefly consider the steps by which domestic races have been produced, either from one or from several allied species.

Some effect may be attributed to the direct and definite action of the external conditions of life, and some to habit; but he would be a bold man who would account by such agencies for the differences between a dray- and race-horse, a greyhound and bloodhound, a carrier and tumbler pigeon.

Dray Horse
Dray Horse

Race Horse
Race Horse

greyhound
greyhound

bloodhound
bloodhound

Tumbler Pigeon
Tumbler Pigeon


One of the most remarkable features in our domesticated races is that we see in them adaptation, not indeed to the animal's or plant's own good, but to man's use or fancy.

Some variations useful to him have probably arisen suddenly, or by one step; many botanists, for instance, believe that the fuller's teasel, with its hooks, which cannot be rivalled by any mechanical contrivance, is only a variety of the wild Dipsacus; and this amount of change may have suddenly arisen in a seedling.

Fuller's Teasel
Fuller's Teasel


So it has probably been with the turnspit dog; and this is known to have been the case with the ancon sheep.

But when we compare the dray-horse and race-horse, the dromedary and camel, the various breeds of sheep fitted either for cultivated land or mountain pasture, with the wool of one breed good for one purpose, and that of another breed for another purpose; when we compare the many breeds of dogs, each good for man in different ways; when we compare the game-cock, so pertinacious in battle, with other breeds so little quarrelsome, with "everlasting layers" which never desire to sit, and with the bantam so small and elegant; when we compare the host of agricultural, culinary, orchard, and flower-garden races of plants, most useful to man at different seasons and for different purposes, or so beautiful in his eyes, we must, I think, look further than to mere variability.

Ancon Sheep
Ancon Sheep

Dray Horse
Dray Horse

Race Horse
Race Horse

camel
camel

sheep
sheep


We cannot suppose that all the breeds were suddenly produced as perfect and as useful as we now see them; indeed, in many cases, we know that this has not been their history. The key is man's power of accumulative selection: nature gives successive variations; man adds them up in certain directions useful to him. In this sense he may be said to have made for himself useful breeds.
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-03 - correlation of Growth 10 Many laws regulate variation, some few of which can be dimly seen, and will hereafter be briefly discussed.

I will here only allude to what may be called correlated variation. Important changes in the embryo or larva will probably entail changes in the mature animal.

In monstrosities, the correlations between quite distinct parts are very curious; and many instances are given in Isidore Geoffroy St-Hilaire's great work on this subject.
Isidore Geoffroy Saint Hilaire
Isidore Geoffroy Saint Hilaire


Breeders believe that long limbs are almost always accompanied by an elongated head.

Some instances of correlation are quite whimsical: thus cats which are entirely white and have blue eyes are generally deaf;

but it has been lately stated by Mr. Tait that this is confined to the males.

Colour and constitutional peculiarities go together, of which many remarkable cases could be given amongst animals and plants.
From facts collected by Heusinger, it appears that white sheep and pigs are injured by certain plants, whilst dark-coloured individuals escape:

sheep
sheep

pig
pig
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-10 - Methodical and Unconscious Selection 10 At the present time, eminent breeders try by methodical selection, with a distinct object in view, to make a new strain or sub-breed, superior to anything of the kind in the country.

But, for our purpose, a form of Selection, which may be called Unconscious, and which results from every one trying to possess and breed from the best individual animals, is more important.

Thus, a man who intends keeping pointers naturally tries to get as good dogs as he can, and afterwards breeds from his own best dogs, but he has no wish or expectation of permanently altering the breed.

dog
dog


Nevertheless we may infer that this process, continued during centuries, would improve and modify any breed, in the same way as Bakewell, Collins, &c., by this very same process, only carried on more methodically, did greatly modify, even during their lifetimes, the forms and qualities of their cattle.

cattle
cattle


Slow and insensible changes of this kind can never be recognised unless actual measurements or careful drawings of the breeds in question have been made long ago, which may serve for comparison. In some cases, however, unchanged, or but little changed individuals of the same breed exist in less civilised districts, where the breed has been less improved.

There is reason to believe that King Charles's spaniel has been unconsciously modified to a large extent since the time of that monarch.

Some highly competent authorities are convinced that the setter is directly derived from the spaniel, and has probably been slowly altered from it.

spaniel
spaniel

Irish Setter
Irish Setter


It is known that the English pointer has been greatly changed within the last century, and in this case the change has, it is believed, been chiefly effected by crosses with the foxhound; but what concerns us is, that the change has been effected unconsciously and gradually, and yet so effectually, that, though the old Spanish pointer certainly came from Spain, Mr. Borrow has not seen, as I am informed by him, any native dog in Spain like our pointer.

English Pointer
English Pointer

foxhound
foxhound
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-11 - Unknown Origin of our Domestic Productions 10 A large amount of change, thus slowly and unconsciously accumulated, explains, as I believe, the well-known fact, that in a number of cases we cannot recognise, and therefore do not know, the wild parent-stocks of the plants which have been longest cultivated in our flower and kitchen gardens.

If it has taken centuries or thousands of years to improve or modify most of our plants up to their present standard of usefulness to man, we can understand how it is that neither Australia, the Cape of Good Hope, nor any other region inhabited by quite uncivilised man, has afforded us a single plant worth culture.

It is not that these countries, so rich in species, do not by a strange chance possess the aboriginal stocks of any useful plants, but that the native plants have not been improved by continued selection up to a standard of perfection comparable with that acquired by the plants in countries anciently civilised.

Australia
Australia

Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope