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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
Column Type #Values Column Stats
id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 36 of 119 (4/p)
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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies order by ordinal limit 140, 4 (Page 36: Row)
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01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-07 - Origin of Domestic Varieties from one or more Species 20 The lake-inhabitants of Switzerland cultivated several kinds of wheat and barley, the pea, the poppy for oil, and flax; and they possessed several domesticated animals.

Switzerland
Switzerland

wheat
wheat

barley
barley

pea
pea

poppy
poppy

oil
oil

flax
flax


They also carried on commerce with other nations.

All this clearly shows, as Reer has remarked, that they had at this early age progressed considerably in civilisation; and this again implies a long continued previous period of less advanced civilisation, during which the domesticated animals, kept by different tribes in different districts, might have varied and given rise to distinct races.
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-09 - Principles of Selection anciently followed, and their Effects 20 The great power of this principle of selection is not hypothetical.

It is certain that several of our eminent breeders have, even within a single lifetime, modified to a large extent their breeds of cattle and sheep.

cattle
cattle

sheep
sheep



In order fully to realise what they have done, it is almost necessary to read several of the many treatises devoted to this subject, and to inspect the animals.

Breeders habitually speak of an animal's organisation as something plastic, which they can model as they please.

If I had space I could quote numerous passages to this effect from highly competent authorities.

Youatt, who was probably better acquainted with the works of agriculturists than almost any other individual, and who was himself a very good judge of animals, speaks of the principle of selection as "that which enables the agriculturist, not only to modify the character of his flock, but to change it altogether. It is the magician's wand, by means of which he may summon into life whatever form and mould he pleases."

Lord Somerville, speaking of what breeders have done for sheep, says:- "It would seem as if they had chalked out upon a wall a form perfect in itself, and then had given it existence."

In Saxony the importance of the principle of selection in regard to merino sheep is so fully recognised, that men follow it as a trade: the sheep are placed on a table and are studied, like a picture by a connoisseur; this is done three times at intervals of months, and the sheep are each time marked and classed, so that the very best may ultimately be selected for breeding.

sheep
sheep

clay
clay

Merino sheep
Merino sheep
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-10 - Methodical and Unconscious Selection 20 By a similar process of selection, and by careful training, English race-horses have come to surpass in fleetness and size the parent Arabs, so that the latter, by the regulations for the Goodwood Races, are favoured in the weights which they carry.

Race Horse
Race Horse


Lord Spencer and others have shown how the cattle of England have increased in weight and in early maturity, compared with the stock formerly kept in this country.

cattle
cattle


By comparing the accounts given in various old treatises of the former and present state of carrier and tumbler pigeons in Britain, India, and Persia, we can trace the stages through which they have insensibly passed, and come to differ so greatly from the rock-pigeon.

English Carrier Pigeon
English Carrier Pigeon

Tumbler Pigeon
Tumbler Pigeon

Rock Pigeon
Rock Pigeon
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-11 - Unknown Origin of our Domestic Productions 20 In regard to the domestic animals kept by uncivilised man, it should not be overlooked that they almost always have to struggle for their own food, at least during certain seasons.

And in two countries very differently circumstanced, individuals of the same species, having slightly different constitutions or structure would often succeed better in the one country than in the other; and thus by a process of "natural selection," as will hereafter be more fully explained, two sub-breeds might be formed.

This, perhaps, partly explains why the varieties kept by savages, as has been remarked by some authors, have more of the character of true species than the varieties kept in civilised countries
Australia
Australia

aboriginal Man
aboriginal Man