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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
Column Type #Values Column Stats
id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 60 of 119 (4/p)
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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies order by ordinal limit 236, 4 (Page 60: Row)
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05 - Laws of Variation 05-10 - Secondary Sexual Characters Variable 30 Finally, then, I conclude that the greater variability of specific characters, or those which distinguish species from species, than of generic characters, or those which are possessed by all the species;- that the frequent extreme variability of an part which is developed in a species in an extraordinary manner in comparison with the same part in its congeners; and the slight degree of variability in a part, however extraordinarily it may be developed, if it be common to a whole group of species;- that the great variability of secondary sexual characters, and their great difference in closely allied species;- that secondary sexual and ordinary specific differences are generally displayed in the same parts of the organisation,- are all principles closely connected together.

All being mainly due to the species of the same group being the descendants of common progenitor, from whom they have inherited much in common,- to parts which have recently and largely varied being more likely still to go on varying than parts which have long been inherited and have not varied,- to natural selection having more or less completely, according to the lapse of time, overmastered the tendency to reversion and to further variability,- to sexual selection being less rigid than ordinary selection,- and to variations in the same parts having been accumulated by natural and sexual selection, and having been thus adapted for secondary sexual, and for ordinary purposes.
03 - Struggle for Existence 03-11 - The Relation of Organism to Organism the Most Important of All Relations 30 Look at a plant in the midst of its range, why does it not double or quadruple its numbers?

We know that it can perfectly well withstand a little more heat or cold, dampness or dryness, for elsewhere it ranges into slightly hotter or colder, damper or drier districts. In this case we can clearly see that if we wish in imagination to give the plant the power of increasing in number, we should have to give it some advantage over its competitors, or over the animals which prey on it.

On the confines of its geographical range, a change of constitution with respect to climate would clearly be an advantage to our plant; but we have reason to believe that only a few plants or animals range so far, that they are destroyed exclusively by the rigour of the climate.

Not until we reach the extreme confines of life, in the Arctic regions or on the borders of an utter desert, will competition cease.

The land may be extremely cold or dry, yet there will be competition between some few species, or between the individuals of the same species, for the warmest or dampest spots.
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04 - Natural Selection 04-01 - Natural Selection 30 Several writers have misapprehended or objected to the term Natural Selection.

Some have even imagined that natural selection induces variability, whereas it implies only the preservation of such variations as arise and are beneficial to the being under its conditions of life.

No one objects to agriculturists speaking of the potent effects of man's selection; and in this case the individual differences given by nature, which man for some object selects, must of necessity first occur.

Others have objected that the term selection implies conscious choice in the animals which become modified; and it has even been urged that, as plants have no volition, natural selection is not applicable to them!

In the literal sense of the word, no doubt, natural selection is a false term; but who ever objected to chemists speaking of the elective affinities of the various elements?- and yet an acid cannot strictly be said to elect the base with which it in preference combines.

It has been said that I speak of natural selection as an active power or Deity; but who objects to an author speaking of the attraction of gravity as ruling the movements of the planets?
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Every one knows what is meant and is implied by such metaphorical expressions; and they are almost necessary for brevity.

So again it is difficult to avoid personifying the word Nature; but I mean by Nature, only the aggregate action and product of many natural laws, and by laws the sequence of events as ascertained by us. With a little familiarity such superficial objections will be forgotten.

05 - Laws of Variation 05-12 - Reversion to Long Lost Characters 30 A considerable catalogue, also, could be given of forms intermediate between two other forms, which themselves can only doubtfully be ranked as species; and this shows, unless all these closely allied forms be considered as independently created species, that they have in varying assumed some of the characters of the others.

But the best evidence of analogous variations is afforded by parts or organs which are generally constant in character, but which occasionally vary so as to resemble, in some degree, the same part or organ in an allied species.

I have collected a long list of such cases; but here, as before, I lie under the great disadvantage of not being able to give them.

I can only repeat that such cases certainly occur, and seem to me very remarkable.