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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
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id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 1 of 119 (4/p)
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01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-02 - Effects of Habit 10 Changed habits produce an inherited effect, as in the period of the flowering of plants when transported from one climate to another. With animals the increased use or disuse of parts has had a more marked influence; thus I find in the domestic duck that the bones of the wing weigh less and the bones of the leg more, in proportion to the whole skeleton, than do the same bones in the wild-duck;
duck
duck


and this change may be safely attributed to the domestic duck flying much less, and walking more, than its wild parents.
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-05 -Character of Domestic Varieties 20 If any well marked distinction existed between a domestic race and a species, this source of doubt would not so perpetually recur.

It has often been stated that domestic races do not differ from each other in character of generic value.

It can be shown that this statement is not correct; but naturalists differ much in determining what characters are of generic value; all such valuations being at present empirical.

When it is explained how genera originate under nature, it will be seen that we have no right to expect often to find generic amount of difference in our domesticated races.
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-03 - correlation of Growth 20 Professor Wyman has recently communicated to me a good illustration of this fact; on asking some farmers in Virginia how it was that all their pigs were black, they informed him that the pigs ate the paint-root (Lachnanthes), which coloured their bones pink, and which caused the hoofs of all but the black varieties to drop off; and one of the "crackers" (i.e. Virginia squatters) added,
"we select the black members of a litter for raising, as they alone have a good chance of living."

Jeffries Wyman
Jeffries Wyman

pig
pig


Hairless dogs have imperfect teeth; long-haired and coarse-haired animals are apt to have, as is asserted, long or many horns;

dog
dog


pigeons with feathered feet have skin between their outer toes; pigeons with short beaks have small feet, and those with long beaks large feet.

Hence if man goes on selecting, and thus augmenting, any peculiarity, he will almost certainly modify unintentionally other parts of the structure, owing to the mysterious laws of correlation.

pigeon
pigeon
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-01 - Causes of Variability 30 I may add, that as some organisms breed freely under the most unnatural conditions (for instance, rabbits and ferrets kept in hutches), showing that their reproductive organs are not easily affected;

rabbit
rabbit

ferret
ferret


so will some animals and plants withstand domestication or cultivation, and vary very slightly- perhaps hardly more than in a state of nature. Some naturalists have maintained that all variations are connected with the act of sexual reproduction;

but this is certainly an error; for I have given in another work a long list of "sporting plants," as they are called by gardeners;- that is, of plants which have suddenly produced a single bud with a new and sometimes widely different character from that of the other buds on the same plant.

These bud variations, as they may be named, can be propagated by grafts, offsets, &c., and sometimes by seed.

graft
graft


They occur rarely under nature, but are far from rare under culture.

As a single bud out of the many thousands, produced year after year on the same tree under uniform conditions, has been known suddenly to assume a new character; and as buds on distinct trees, growing under different conditions, have sometimes yielded nearly the same variety- for instance, buds on peach-trees producing nectarines, and buds on common roses producing moss-roses- we clearly see that the nature of the conditions is of subordinate importance in comparison with the nature of the organism in determining each particular form of variation;-
bud
bud

tree
tree

peach
peach

nectarine
nectarine

rose
rose

Moss Rose
Moss Rose


perhaps of not more importance than the nature of the spark, by which a mass of combustible matter is ignited, has in determining the nature of the flames.
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