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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
Column Type #Values Column Stats
id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 80 of 119 (4/p)
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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies order by subject limit 316, 4 (Page 80: Row)
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06 - Difficutiles in Theory 06-06 - Species with Habits Widely Diffferent from those of their Allies 10 Petrels are the most aerial and oceanic of birds, but in the quiet sounds of Tierra del Fuego, the Puffinuria berardi, in its general habits, in its astonishing power of diving, in its manner of swimming and of flying when made to take flight, would be mistaken by any one for an auk or a grebe; nevertheless it is essentially a petrel, but with many parts of its organisation profoundly modified in relation to its new habits of life; whereas the woodpecker of La Plata has had its structure only slightly modified.

In the case of the waterouzel, the acutest observer by examining its dead body would never have suspected its subaquatic habits; yet this bird, which is allied to the thrush family, subsists by diving- using its wings under water, and grasping stones with its feet.
petrel
petrel

Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego

auk
auk


All the members of the great order of hymenopterous insects are terrestrial excepting the genus Proctotrupes, which Sir John Lubbock has discovered to be aquatic in its habits; it often enters the water and dives about by the use not of its legs but of its wings, and remains as long as four hours beneath the surface; yet it exhibits no modification in structure in accordance with its abnormal habits.
06 - Difficutiles in Theory 06-06 - Species with Habits Widely Diffferent from those of their Allies 20 He who believes that each being has been created as we now see it, must occasionally have felt surprise when he has met with an animal having habits and structure not in agreement.

What can be plainer than that the webbed feet of ducks and geese are formed for swimming?

duck
duck

goose
goose


Yet there are upland geese with webbed feet which rarely go near the water; and no one except Audubon has seen the frigate-bird, which has all its four toes webbed, alight on the surface of the ocean.

Frigate Bird
Frigate Bird


On the other hand, grebes and coots are eminently aquatic, although their toes are only bordered by membrane.

grebe
grebe

coot
coot


What seems plainer than that the long toes, not furnished with membrane, of the Grallatores are formed for walking over swamps and floating plants?- the water-hen and landrail are members of this order, yet the first is nearly as aquatic as the coot, and the second nearly as terrestrial as the quail or partridge.
waterhen
waterhen

landrail
landrail


In such cases, and many others could be given, habits have changed without a corresponding change of structure.

The webbed feet of the upland goose may be said to have become almost rudimentary in function, though not in
structure.

In the frigate-bird, the deeply scooped membrane between the toes shows that structure has begun to change.
06 - Difficutiles in Theory 06-07 - Organs of extreme Perfection 30 In the great class of the Articulata, we may start from an optic nerve simply coated with pigment, the latter sometimes forming a sort of pupil, but destitute of a lens or other optical contrivance.
articulata
articulata


With insects it is now known that the numerous facets on the cornea of their great compound eyes form true lenses, and that the cones include curiously modified nervous filaments.
insect
insect


But these organs in the Articulata are so much diversified that Muller formerly made three main classes with seven subdivisions, besides a fourth main class of aggregated simple eyes.

When we reflect on these facts, here given much too briefly, with respect to the wide, diversified, and graduated range of structure in the eyes of the lower animals; and when we bear in mind how small the number of all living forms must be in comparison with those which have become extinct, the difficulty ceases to be very great in believing that natural selection may have converted the simple apparatus of an optic nerve, coated with pigment and invested by transparent membrane, into an optical instrument as perfect as is possessed by any member of the articulate class.
06 - Difficutiles in Theory 06-03 - Absence or Rarity of Transitional Varieties 10 But, as by this theory innumerable transitional forms must have existed, why do we not find them embedded in countless numbers in the crust of the earth?

It will be more convenient to discuss this question in the chapter on the Imperfection of the Geological Record; and I will here only state that I believe the answer mainly lies in the record being incomparably less perfect than is generally supposed.


The crust of the earth is a vast museum; but the natural connections have been imperfectly made, and only at long intervals of time.

fossil
fossil