M Database Inspector (cheetah)
Not logged in. Login


133 rows, page 1 of 34 (4/p)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 20 30 34

Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies where ordinal = '10' order by description desc limit 4 (Page 1: Row)
subject
title
ordinal
description Desending Order (top row is last)
13 - Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Or 13-05 - Descent always used in classification 10 With species in a state of nature, every naturalist has in fact brought descent into his classification; for he includes in his lowest grade, or that of a species, the two sexes; and how enormously these sometimes differ in the most important characters, is known to every naturalist: scarcely a single fact can be predicated in common of the males and hermaphrodites of certain cirripedes, when adult, and yet no one dreams of separating them.

cirripede
cirripede


The naturalist includes as one species the several larval stages of the same individual, however much they may differ from each other and from the adult; as he likewise includes the so-called alternate generations of Steenstrup, which can only in a technical sense be considered as the same individual.

Japetus Steenstrup
Japetus Steenstrup


He includes monsters; he includes varieties, not solely because they closely resemble the parent-form, but because they are descended from it.

He who believes that the cowslip is descended from the primrose, or conversely, ranks them together as a single species, and gives a single definition.

cowslip
cowslip

primrose
primrose


As soon as three Orchidean forms (Monochanthus, Myanthus, and Catasetum), which had previously been ranked as three distinct genera, were known to be sometimes produced on the same spike, they were immediately included as a single species.

orchid
orchid
12 - Geographical Distribution -- continued 12-30 - Absence of Batrachians and of terrestrial Mammals 10 With respect to the absence of whole orders on oceanic islands, Bory St. Vincent long ago remarked that Batrachians (frogs, toads, newts) have never been found on any of the many islands with which the great oceans are studded.

Bory Saint Vincent
Bory Saint Vincent

Full Size Full Size
frogs

toad
toad

newt
newt
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-05 -Character of Domestic Varieties 10 When we look to the hereditary varieties or races of our domestic animals and plants, and compare them with closely allied species, we generally perceive in each domestic race, as already remarked, less uniformity of character than in true species.
Full Size Full Size

Domestic races often have a somewhat monstrous character; by which I mean, that, although differing from each other, and from other species of the same genus, in several trifling respects, they often differ in an extreme degree in some one part, both when compared one with another, and more especially when compared with the species under nature to which they are nearest allied. With these exceptions (and with that of the perfect fertility of varieties when crossed,- a subject hereafter to be discussed), domestic races of the same species differ from each other in the same manner as do the closely-allied species of the same genus in a state of nature, but the differences in most cases are less in degree.

This must be admitted as true, for the domestic races of many animals and plants have been ranked by some competent judges as the descendants of aboriginally distinct species, and by other competent judges as mere varieties.
01 - Variations Under Domestication 01-01 - Causes of Variability 10 WHEN we compare the individuals of the same variety or sub-variety of our older cultivated plants and animals, one of the first points which strikes us is, that they generally differ more from each other than do the individuals of any one species or variety in a state of nature.
Full Size

And if we reflect on the vast diversity of the plants and animals which have been cultivated, and which have varied during all ages under the most different climates and treatment, we are driven to conclude that this great variability is due to our domestic productions having been raised under conditions of life not so uniform as, and somewhat different from, those to which the parent species had been exposed under nature.

There is, also, some probability in the view propounded by Andrew Knight, that this variability may be partly connected with excess of food.
Thomas Andrew Knight
Thomas Andrew Knight


It seems clear that organic beings must be exposed during several generations to new conditions to cause any great amount of variation; and that, when the organization has once begun to vary, it generally continues varying for many generations.

No case is on record of a variable organism ceasing to vary under cultivation.

Our oldest cultivated plants, such as wheat, still yield new varieties: our oldest, domesticated animals are still capable of rapid improvement or modification.

durum
durum

Angus
Angus