13 - Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Or
13-05 - Descent always used in classification
With species in a state of nature, every naturalist has in fact brought descent into his classification; for he includes in his lowest grade, or that of a species, the two sexes; and how enormously these sometimes differ in the most important characters, is known to every naturalist: scarcely a single fact can be predicated in common of the males and hermaphrodites of certain cirripedes, when adult, and yet no one dreams of separating them.
The naturalist includes as one species the several larval stages of the same individual, however much they may differ from each other and from the adult; as he likewise includes the so-called alternate generations of Steenstrup, which can only in a technical sense be considered as the same individual.
He includes monsters; he includes varieties, not solely because they closely resemble the parent-form, but because they are descended from it.
He who believes that the cowslip is descended from the primrose, or conversely, ranks them together as a single species, and gives a single definition.
As soon as three Orchidean forms (Monochanthus, Myanthus, and Catasetum), which had previously been ranked as three distinct genera, were known to be sometimes produced on the same spike, they were immediately included as a single species.