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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies where ordinal = '30' order by subject, title, ordinal limit 48, 4 (Page 13: Row)
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14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-01 - Recapitulation of the difficulties on the theory of Natural Selection 30 With respect to the almost universal sterility of species when first crossed, which forms so remarkable a contrast with the almost universal fertility of varieties when crossed, I must refer the reader to the recapitulation of the facts given at the end of the eighth chapter, which seem to me conclusively to show that this sterility is no more a special endowment than is the incapacity of two trees to be grafted together, but that it is incidental on constitutional differences in the reproductive systems of the intercrossed species.

We see the truth of this conclusion in the vast difference in the result, when the same two species are crossed reciprocally; that is, when one species is first used as the father and then as the mother.

mule
mule

hinny
hinny


The fertility of varieties when intercrossed and of their mongrel offspring cannot be considered as universal; nor is their very general fertility surprising when we remember that it is not likely that either their constitutions or their reproductive systems should have been profoundly modified.

Moreover, most of the varieties which have been experimentised on have been produced under domestication; and as domestication apparently tends to eliminate sterility, we ought not to expect it also to produce sterility.

The sterility of hybrids is a very different case from that of first crosses, for their reproductive organs are more or less functionally impotent; whereas in first crosses the organs on both sides are in a perfect condition.

horse
horse

donkey
donkey


As we continually see that organisms of all kinds are rendered in some degree sterile from their constitutions having been disturbed by slightly different and new conditions of life, we need not feel surprise at hybrids being in some degree sterile, for their constitutions can hardly fail to have been disturbed from being compounded of two distinct organisations.

This parallelism is supported by another parallel, but directly opposite, class of facts; namely, that the vigour and fertility of all organic beings are increased by slight changes in their conditions of life, and that the offspring of slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from being crossed increased vigour and fertility.

So that, on the one hand, considerable changes in the conditions of life and crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in the conditions of life and crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility.
14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-02 - Recapitulation of the general and special circumstances in its favour 30 As geology plainly proclaims that each land has undergone great physical changes, we might have expected that organic beings would have varied under nature, in the same way as they generally have varied under the changed conditions of domestication.

And if there be any variability under nature, it would be an unaccountable fact if natural selection had not come into play.

It has often been asserted, but the assertion is quite incapable of proof, that the amount of variation under nature is a strictly limited quantity.

Man, though acting on external characters alone and often capriciously, can produce within a short period a great result by adding up mere individual differences in his domestic productions; and every one admits that there are at least individual differences in species under nature.

But, besides such differences, all naturalists have admitted the existence of varieties, which they think sufficiently distinct to be worthy of record in systematic works.

No one can draw any clear distinction between individual differences and slight varieties; or between more plainly marked varieties and subspecies, and species.

Let it be observed how naturalists differ in the rank which they assign to the many representative forms in Europe and North America.

Europe
Europe

North America
North America
14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-03 - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species 30 On the view of all the species of the same genus having descended from a common parent, and having inherited much in common, we can understand how it is that allied species, when placed under considerably different conditions of life, yet should follow nearly the same instincts; why the thrush of South America, for instance, lines her nest with mud like our British species.

thrush
thrush

South America
South America

England
England


On the view of instincts having been slowly acquired through natural selection we need not marvel at some instincts being apparently not perfect and liable to mistakes, and at many instincts causing other animals to suffer.

If species be only well-marked and permanent varieties, we can at once see why their crossed offspring should follow the same complex laws in their degrees and kinds of resemblance to their parents, -- in being absorbed into each other by successive crosses, and in other such points, -- as do the crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties.

On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and varieties have been produced by secondary laws.
14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-05 - Effects of its adoption on the study of Natural history 30 A new variety raised by man will be a far more important and interesting subject for study than one more species added to the infinitude of already recorded species.

Our classifications will come to be, as far as they can be so made, genealogies; and will then truly give what may be called the plan of creation.

The rules for classifying will no doubt become simpler when we have a definite object in view.

We possess no pedigrees or armorial bearings; and we have to discover and trace the many diverging lines of descent in our natural genealogies, by characters of any kind which have long been inherited.

Rudimentary organs will speak infallibly with respect to the nature of long-lost structures.

Species and groups of species, which are called aberrant, and which may fancifully be called living fossils, will aid us in forming a picture of the ancient forms of life.