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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
Column Type #Values Column Stats
id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 116 of 119 (4/p)
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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies order by subject, title, ordinal limit 460, 4 (Page 116: Row)
subject
title
ordinal
description
14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-03 - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species 70 The existence of closely allied or representative species in any two areas, implies, on the theory of descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist.

Wherever many closely allied yet distinct species occur, many doubtful forms and varieties of the same species likewise occur.

It is a rule of high generality that the inhabitants of each area are related to the inhabitants of the nearest source whence immigrants might have been derived.

We see this in nearly all the plants and animals of the Galapagos archipelago, of Juan Fernandez, and of the other American islands being related in the most striking manner to the plants and animals of the neighbouring American mainland; and those of the Cape de Verde archipelago and other African islands to the African mainland.

Galapagos Islands
Galapagos Islands

Juan Fernandez Islands
Juan Fernandez Islands


It must be admitted that these facts receive no explanation on the theory of creation.
14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-03 - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species 80 The fact, as we have seen, that all past and present organic beings constitute one grand natural system, with group subordinate to group, and with extinct groups often falling in between recent groups, is intelligible on the theory of natural selection with its contingencies of extinction and divergence of character.

On these same principles we see how it is, that the mutual affinities of the species and genera within each class are so complex and circuitous.

We see why certain characters are far more serviceable than others for classification; -- why adaptive characters, though of paramount importance to the being, are of hardly any importance in classification; why characters derived from rudimentary parts, though of no service to the being, are often of high classificatory value; and why embryological characters are the most valuable of all.

The real affinities of all organic beings are due to inheritance or community of descent.

The natural system is a genealogical arrangement, in which we have to discover the lines of descent by the most permanent characters, however slight their vital importance may be.

The framework of bones being the same in the hand of a man, wing of a bat, fin of the porpoise, and leg of the horse, -- the same number of vertebrae forming the neck of the giraffe and of the elephant, -- and innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on the theory of descent with slow and slight successive modifications.

man
man

bat
bat

porpoise
porpoise

horse
horse

giraffe
giraffe

elephant
elephant
14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-03 - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species 90 The similarity of pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for such different purposes, -- in the jaws and legs of a crab, -- in the petals, stamens, and pistils of a flower, is likewise intelligible on the view of the gradual modification of parts or organs, which were alike in the early progenitor of each class.

bat
bat

crab
crab

petals
petals

stamen
stamen

pistil
pistil
14 - Recapitulation and Conclusion 14-03 - Causes of the general belief in the immutability of species 100 On the principle of successive variations not always supervening at an early age, and being inherited at a corresponding not early period of life, we can clearly see why the embryos of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes should be so closely alike, and should be so unlike the adult forms.

embryo
embryo

mammals
mammals

birds
birds

reptiles
reptiles

fish
fish


We may cease marvelling at the embryo of an air-breathing mammal or bird having branchial slits and arteries running in loops, like those in a fish which has to breathe the air dissolved in water, by the aid of well-developed branchiae.