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OriginOfSpecies - 475 Rows
Column Type #Values Column Stats
id int(11) 475 Column Stats
subject varchar(80) 14 Column Stats
title varchar(250) 139 Column Stats
ordinal int(11) 30 Column Stats
description text 474 Column Stats

475 rows, page 59 of 119 (4/p)
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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies order by subject, title, ordinal limit 232, 4 (Page 59: Row)
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05 - Laws of Variation 05-06 - False Correlation 10 We may often falsely attribute to correlated variation structures which are common to whole groups of species, and which in truth are simply due to inheritance; for an ancient progenitor may have acquired through natural selection some one modification in structure, and, after thousands of generations, some other and independent modification; and these two modifications, having been transmitted to a whole group of descendants with diverse habits, would naturally be thought to be in some necessary manner correlated.
05 - Laws of Variation 05-06 - False Correlation 20 Some other correlations are apparently due to the manner in which natural selection can alone act.

For instance, Alph. de Candolle has remarked that winged seeds are never found in fruits which do not open; I should explain this rule by the impossibility of seeds gradually becoming winged through natural selection, unless the capsules were open; for in this case alone could the seeds, which were a little better adapted to be wafted by the wind, gain an advantage over others less well fitted for wide dispersal.

Alphonse de Candolle
Alphonse de Candolle

winged thistle seed
winged thistle seed
05 - Laws of Variation 05-07 - Multiple, Rudimentary, and Lowly-organised Structures are Variable 10 It seems to be a rule, as remarked by the younger Geoffroy, both with varieties and species, that when any part or organ is repeated many times in the same individual (as the vertebrae in snakes, and the stamens in polyandrous flowers) the number is variable; whereas the same part or organ, when it occurs in lesser numbers, is constant.

snake
snake


The same author as well as some botanists have further remarked that multiple parts are extremely liable to vary in structure. As "vegetable repetition," to use Prof. Owen's expression, is a sign of low organisation, the foregoing statements accord with the common opinion of naturalists, that beings which stand low in the scale of nature are more variable than those which are higher.
Richard Owen
Richard Owen
05 - Laws of Variation 05-07 - Multiple, Rudimentary, and Lowly-organised Structures are Variable 20 I presume that lowness here means that the several parts of the organisation have been but little specialised for particular functions; and as long as the same part has to perform diversified work, we can perhaps see why it should remain variable, that is, why natural selection should not have preserved or rejected each little deviation of form as carefully as when the part has to serve for some one special purpose.

In the same way, a knife which has to cut all sorts of things may be of almost any shape; whilst a tool for some particular-purpose must be of some particular shape.

knife
knife


Natural selection, it should never be forgotten, can act solely through and for the advantage of each being. Rudimentary parts, as it is generally admitted, are apt to be highly variable.

We shall have to recur to this subject; and I will here only add that their variability seems to result from their uselessness, and consequently from natural selection having had no power to check deviations in their structure.