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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies where subject = '04 - Natural Selection' order by description limit 44, 4 (Page 12: Row)
subject
title
ordinal
description Desending Order (top row is first)
04 - Natural Selection 04-03 - Its Power on Characters of Trifling Importance 20 In looking at many small points of difference between species, which, as far as our ignorance permits us to judge, seem quite unimportant, we must not forget that climate, food, &c., have no doubt produced some direct effect. It is also necessary to bear in mind that, owing to the law of correlation, when one part varies, and the variations are accumulated through natural selection, other modifications, often of the most unexpected nature, will ensue.
04 - Natural Selection 04-06 - On the generality of Intercross Between Individuals of the Same Species 20 In order to make it clear how, as I believe, natural selection
acts, I must beg permission to give one or two imaginary
illustrations.

Let us take the case of a wolf, which preys on various
animals, securing some by craft, some by strength, and
some by fleetness; and let us suppose that the fleetest prey,
a deer for instance, had from any change in the country
increased in numbers, or that other prey had decreased in
numbers, during that season of the year when the wolf was
hardest pressed for food.

wolf
wolf


Under such circumstances the swiftest and slimmest
wolves would have the best chance of surviving and so
be preserved or selected,- provided always that they
retained strength to master their prey at this or some
other period of the year, when they were compelled to
prey on other animals.

I can see no more reason to doubt that this would be the
result, than that man should be able to improve the fleetness
of his greyhounds by careful and methodical selection, or by
that kind of unconscious selection which follows from each
man trying to keep the best dogs without any thought of
modifying the breed.
04 - Natural Selection 04-07 - Illustrations of the Action of Natural Selection: 10 In order to make it clear how, as I believe, natural selection acts, I must beg permission to give one or two imaginary illustrations.

Let us take the case of a wolf, which preys on various animals, securing some by craft, some by strength, and some by fleetness; and let us suppose that the fleetest prey, a deer for instance, had from any change in the country increased in numbers, or that other prey had decreased in numbers, during that season of the year when the wolf was hardest pressed for food. Under such circumstances the swiftest and slimmest wolves would have the best chance of surviving and so be preserved or selected,- provided always that they retained strength to master their prey at this or some other period of the year, when they were compelled to prey on other animals.

wolf
wolf

deer
deer


I can see no more reason to doubt that this would be the result, than that man should be able to improve the fleetness of his greyhounds by careful and methodical selection, or by that kind of unconscious selection which follows from each man trying to keep the best dogs without any thought of modifying the breed.

dog
dog
04 - Natural Selection 04-08 - On the Intercrossing of Individuals 60 In the case of a large tree covered with innumerable flowers, it may be objected that pollen could seldom be carried from tree to tree, and at most only from flower to flower on the same tree; and flowers on the same tree can be considered as distinct individuals only in a limited sense.

tree
tree


I believe this objection to be valid, but that nature has largely provided against it by giving to trees a strong tendency to bear flowers with separated sexes.

When the sexes are separated, although the male and female flowers may be produced on the same tree, pollen must be regularly carried from flower to flower; and this will give a better chance of pollen being occasionally carried from tree to tree.

That trees belonging to all Orders have their sexes more often separated than other plants, I find to be the case in this country; and at my request Dr. Hooker tabulated the trees of New Zealand, and Dr. Asa Gray those of the United States, and the result was as I anticipated.

England
England

New Zealand
New Zealand

United States
United States


On the other hand, Dr. Hooker informs me that the rule does not hold good in Australia but if most of the Australian trees are dichogamous, the same result would follow as if they bore flowers with separated sexes.

Australia
Australia


I have made these few remarks on trees simply to call attention to the subject.