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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies where subject = '04 - Natural Selection' order by description limit 76, 4 (Page 20: Row)
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04 - Natural Selection 04-11 - Divergence of Character 200 The new species in our diagram descended from the original eleven species, will now be fifteen in number.

Owing to the divergent tendency of natural selection, the extreme amount of difference in character between species a14 and z14 will be much greater than that between the most distinct of the original eleven species.
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The new species, moreover, will be allied to each other in a widely different manner. Of the eight descendants from (A) the three marked a14, q14, p14, will be nearly related from having recently branched off from a10; b14, and f14, from having diverged at an earlier period from a1, will be in some degree distinct from the three first-named species; and lastly, o14, e14, and m14, will be nearly related one to the other, but, from having diverged at the first commencement of the process of modification, will be widely different from the other five species, and may constitute a sub-genus or a distinct genus.
04 - Natural Selection 04-11 - Divergence of Character 10 The principle, which I have designated by this term, is of high importance, and explains, as I believe, several important facts.

In the first place, varieties, even strongly-marked ones, though having somewhat of the character of species- as is shown by the hopeless doubts in many cases how to rank them- yet certainly differ far less from each other than do good and distinct species.

Nevertheless, according to my view, varieties are species in the process of formation, or are, as I have called them, incipient species.

How, then, does the lesser difference between varieties become augmented into the greater difference between species?

That this does habitually happen, we must infer from most of the innumerable species throughout nature presenting well-marked differences; whereas varieties, the supposed prototypes and parents of future well-marked species, present slight and ill-defined differences.

Mere chance, as we may call it, might cause one variety to differ in some character from its parents, and the offspring of this variety again to differ from its parent in the very same character and in a greater degree; but this alone would never account for so habitual and large a degree of difference as that between the species of the same genus.
04 - Natural Selection 04-13 - Convergence of Character 70 The process of extermination in such cases would be rapid, whereas the production of new species must always be slow.

Imagine the extreme case of as many species as individuals in England, and the first severe winter or very dry summer would exterminate thousands on thousands of species.

England
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Rare species, and each species will become rare if the number of species in any country becomes indefinitely increased, will, on the principle often explained, present within a given period few favourable variations; consequently, the process of giving birth to new specific forms would thus be retarded.
04 - Natural Selection 04-11 - Divergence of Character 60 The same principle is seen in the naturalisation of plants through man's agency in foreign lands. It might have been expected that the plants which would succeed in becoming naturalised in any land would generally have been closely allied to the indigenes; for these are commonly looked at as specially created and adapted for their own country.

It might also, perhaps, have been expected that naturalised plants would have belonged to a few groups more especially adapted to certain stations in their new homes.

But the case is very different; and Alph. de Candolle has well remarked, in his great and admirable work, that floras gain by naturalisation, proportionally with the number of the native genera and species far more in new genera than in new species.

To give a single instance: in the last edition of Dr. Asa Gray's Manual of the Flora of the Northern United States, 260 naturalized plants are enumerated, and these belong to 162 genera.

We thus see that these naturalised plants are of a highly diversified nature. They differ, moreover, to a large extent, from the indigenes, for out of the 162 naturalised genera, no less than 100 genera are not there indigenous, and thus a large proportional addition is made to the genera now living in the United States.
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