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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies where subject = '04 - Natural Selection' order by description limit 96, 4 (Page 25: Row)
subject
title
ordinal
description Desending Order (top row is first)
04 - Natural Selection 04-10 - Extinction caused by Natural Selection 20 We have seen that the species which are most numerous in individuals have the best chance of producing favourable variations within any given period.

We have evidence of this, in the facts stated in the second chapter showing that it is the common and diffused or dominant species which offer the greatest number of recorded varieties.

Hence, rare species will be less quickly modified or improved within any given period; they will consequently be beaten in the race for life by the modified and improved descendants of the commoner species.
04 - Natural Selection 04-01 - Natural Selection 40 We shall best understand the probable course of natural selection by taking the case of a country undergoing some slight physical change, for instance, of climate.

The proportional numbers of its inhabitants will almost immediately undergo a change, and some species will probably become extinct.

We may conclude, from what we have seen of the intimate and complex manner in which the inhabitants of each country are bound together, that any change in the numerical proportions of the inhabitants, independently of the change of climate itself, would seriously affect the others.

If the country were open on its borders, new forms would certainly immigrate, and this would likewise seriously disturb the relations of some of the former inhabitants.

let it be remembered how powerful the influence of a single introduced tree or mammal has been shown to be.

mammals
mammals


But in the case of an island, or of a country partly surrounded by barriers, into which new and better adapted forms could not freely enter, we should then have places in the economy of nature which would assuredly be better filled up, if some of the original inhabitants were in some manner modified; for, had the area been open to immigration, these same places would have been seized on by intruders.

island
island


In such cases, slight modifications, which in any way favoured the individuals of any species, by better adapting them to their altered conditions, would tend to be preserved; and natural selection would have free scope for the work of improvement.
04 - Natural Selection 04-13 - Convergence of Character 60 What then checks an indefinite increase in the number of species?

The amount of life (I do not mean the number of specific forms) supported on an area must have a limit, depending so largely as it does on physical conditions; therefore, if an area be inhabited by very many species, each or nearly each species will be represented by few individuals; and such species will be liable to extermination from accidental fluctuations in the nature of the seasons or in the number of their enemies.
04 - Natural Selection 04-13 - Convergence of Character 80 When any species becomes very rare, close interbreeding will help to exterminate it; authors have thought that this comes into play in accounting for the deterioration of the aurochs in Lithuania, of red deer in Scotland, and of bears in Norway, &e. Lastly, and this I am inclined to think is the most important element, a dominant species, which has already beaten many competitors in its own home, will tend to spread and supplant many others.

auroch
auroch

Lithuania
Lithuania

Red Deer
Red Deer

Scotland
Scotland

bear
bear

Norway
Norway


Alph. de Candolle has shown that those species which spread widely, tend generally to spread very widely; consequently, they will tend to supplant and exterminate several species in several areas, and thus cheek the inordinate increase of specific forms throughout the world.

Dr. Hooker has recently shown that in the S.E. corner of Australia, where, apparently, there are many invaders from different quarters of the globe, the endemic Australian species have been greatly reduced in number.

How much weight to attribute to these several considerations I will not pretend to say; but conjointly they must limit in each country the tendency to an indefinite augmentation of specific forms.