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Export to Excel select * from OriginOfSpecies where subject = '13 - Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Or' order by subject, title, ordinal limit 20, 4 (Page 6: Row)
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13 - Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Or 13-05 - Descent always used in classification 50 The resemblance, in the shape of the body and in the fin-like anterior limbs, between the dugong, which is a pachydermatous animal, and the whale, and between both these mammals and fishes, is analogical.

Amongst insects there are innumerable instances: thus Linnaeus, misled by external appearances, actually classed an homopterous insect as a moth.

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus

moth
moth


We see something of the same kind even in our domestic varieties, as in the thickened stems of the common and swedish turnip.

turnip
turnip


The resemblance of the greyhound and racehorse is hardly more fanciful than the analogies which have been drawn by some authors between very distinct animals.

greyhound
greyhound

Race Horse
Race Horse
13 - Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Or 13-05 - Descent always used in classification 60 On my view of characters being of real importance for classification, only in so far as they reveal descent, we can clearly understand why analogical or adaptive character, although of the utmost importance to the welfare of the being, are almost valueless to the systematist.

For animals, belonging to two most distinct lines of descent, may readily become adapted to similar conditions, and thus assume a close external resemblance; but such resemblances will not reveal will rather tend to conceal their blood-relationship to their proper lines of descent.

We can also understand the apparent paradox, that the very same characters are analogical when one class or order is compared with another, but give true affinities when the members of the same class or order are compared one with another: thus the shape of the body and fin-like limbs are only analogical when whales are compared with fishes, being adaptations in both classes for swimming through the water; but the shape of the body and fin-like limbs serve as characters exhibiting true affinity between the several members of the whale family; for these cetaceans agree in so many characters, great and small, that we cannot doubt that they have inherited their general shape of body and structure of limbs from a common ancestor.

whale
whale

fish
fish


So it is with fishes.
13 - Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Or 13-06 - Analogical or adaptive characters 10 As members of distinct classes have often been adapted by successive slight modifications to live under nearly similar circumstances, to inhabit for instance the three elements of land, air, and water, we can perhaps understand how it is that a numerical parallelism has sometimes been observed between the sub-groups in distinct classes.

A naturalist, struck by a parallelism of this nature in any one class, by arbitrarily raising or sinking the value of the groups in other classes (and all our experience shows that this valuation has hitherto been arbitrary), could easily extend the parallelism over a wide range; and thus the septenary, quinary, quaternary, and ternary classifications have probably arisen.

As the modified descendants of dominant species, belonging to the larger genera, tend to inherit the advantages, which made the groups to which they belong large and their parents dominant, they are almost sure to spread widely, and to seize on more and more places in the economy of nature.

The larger and more dominant groups thus tend to go on increasing in size; and they consequently supplant many smaller and feebler groups.

Thus we can account for the fact that all organisms, recent and extinct, are included under a few great orders, under still fewer classes, and all in one great natural system.

As showing how few the higher groups are in number, and how widely spread they are throughout the world, the fact is striking, that the discovery of Australia has not added a single insect belonging to a new order; and that in the vegetable kingdom, as I learn from Dr. Hooker, it has added only two or three orders of small size.

Australia
Australia
13 - Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Or 13-06 - Analogical or adaptive characters 20 In the chapter on geological succession I attempted to show, on the principle of each group having generally diverged much in character during the long-continued process of modification, how it is that the more ancient forms of life often present characters in some slight degree intermediate between existing groups.

A few old and intermediate parent-forms having occasionally transmitted to the present day descendants but little modified, will give to us our so-called osculant or aberrant groups.

The more aberrant any form is, the greater must be the number of connecting forms which on my theory have been exterminated and utterly lost.

And we have some evidence of aberrant forms having suffered severely from extinction, for they are generally represented by extremely few species; and such species as do occur are generally very distinct from each other, which again implies extinction.

The genera Ornithorhynchus and Lepidosiren, for example, would not have been less aberrant had each been represented by a dozen species instead of by a single one; but such richness in species, as I find after some investigation, does not commonly fall to the lot of aberrant genera.

ornithorhynchus
ornithorhynchus

lepidosiren
lepidosiren


We can, I think, account for this fact only by looking at aberrant forms as failing groups conquered by more successful competitors, with a few members preserved by some unusual coincidence of favourable circumstances.