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04 - Natural Selection 04-11 - Divergence of Character 90 After the foregoing discussion, which has been much compressed, we may assume that the modified descendants of any one species will succeed so much the better as they become more diversified in structure, and are thus enabled to encroach on places occupied by other beings. Now let us see how this principle of benefit being derived from divergence of character, combined with the principles of natural selection and of extinction, tends to act.
04 - Natural Selection 04-11 - Divergence of Character 100 The accompanying diagram will aid us in understanding this rather perplexing subject.

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Let A to L represent the species of a genus large in its own country; these species are supposed to resemble each other in unequal degrees, as is so generally the case in nature, and as is represented in the diagram by the letters standing at unequal distances.

I have said a large genus, because as we saw in the second chapter, on an average more species vary in large genera than in small genera; and the varying species of the large genera present a greater number of varieties.

We have, also, seen that the species, which are the commonest and the most widely diffused, vary more than do the rare and restricted species. Let (A) be a common, widely-diffused, and varying species, belonging to a genus large in its own country.

The branching and diverging lines of unequal lengths proceeding from (A), may represent its varying offspring.

The variations are supposed to be extremely slight, but of the most diversified nature; they are not supposed all to appearsimultaneously, but often after long intervals of time, nor are
they an supposed to endure for equal periods.

Only those variations which are in some way profitable will be preserved or naturally selected.

And here the importance of the principle of benefit derived from divergence of character comes in; for this will generally lead to the most different or divergent variations (represented by the outer lines) being preserved and accumulated by natural selection.

When a line reaches one of the horizontal lines, and is there marked by a small numbered letter, a sufficient amount of variation is supposed to have been accumulated to form it into a fairly well-marked variety, such as would be thought worthy of record in a systematic work.
04 - Natural Selection 04-11 - Divergence of Character 110 Full Size
The intervals between the horizontal lines in the diagram, may represent each a thousand or more generations.

After a thousand generations, species (A) is supposed to have produced two fairly well-marked varieties, namely a1 and m1.

These two varieties will generally still be exposed to the same conditions which made their parents variable, and the tendency to variability is in itself hereditary; consequently they will likewise tend to vary, and commonly in nearly the same manner as did their parents.

Moreover, these two varieties, being only slightly modified forms, will tend to inherit those advantages which made their parent (A) more numerous than most of the other inhabitants of the same country; they will also partake of those more general advantages which made the genus to which the parent-species belonged, a large genus in its own country.

And all these circumstances are favourable to the production of new varieties.
04 - Natural Selection 04-11 - Divergence of Character 120 Full Size
If, then, these two varieties be variable, the most divergent of their variations will generally be preserved during the next thousand generations.

And after this interval, variety a1 is supposed in the diagram to have produced variety a2, which will, owing to the principle of divergence, differ more from (A) than did variety a1.

Variety m1 is supposed to have produced two varieties, namely m2 and s2, differing from each other, and more considerably from their common parent (A).

We may continue the process by similar steps for any length of time; some of the varieties, after each thousand generations, producing only a single variety, but in a more and more modified condition, some producing two or three varieties, and some failing to produce any.

Thus the varieties or modified descendants of the common parent (A), will generally go on increasing in number and diverging in character. In the diagram the process is represented up to the ten-thousandth generation, and under a condensed and simplified form up to the fourteen-thousandth generation.