M Database Inspector (cheetah)
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[[[life/msdbSearchText/story/darwin|He]]] was exchanging letters with the [[[OriginOfSpecies/msdbSearchText/title/Slave-making ants|swiss ant expert]]] about this ant, that is just like the British ant, but not exactly. [[[[[images/England.gif]]]]] [[[[[images/ant.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/Switzerland.jpg]]]]] What does that mean? Could the british ant in ancient times somehow have migrated to England, and later evolved there to become slightly different? [[[[[images/water.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/bull.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/island.jpg]]]]] During those times, most mail with Europe was carried by [[[OriginOfSpecies/msdbSearchText/title/pigeon|pigeons]]]. [[[[[images/pigeon.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/dove.gif]]]]] So fascinated was he with exchanging [[[life/msdbSearchText/story/scien|scien]]]ce ideas, that he started hanging out with the postal servicemen. The pigeon growers. He even raised pigeons for six years just to see if he can produce a pigeon with a [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 1|red tail]]]. [[[[[images/pigeon.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/redTail.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/RedTailBlackCocka.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/redTailHawk.jpg]]]]] But the letter from the swiss ant [[[life/msdbSearchText/story/scien|scien]]]tist is long overdue. So he walks over to the local post office and demands: Where is my pigeon? [[[[[images/postalCarriers.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/pigeonMail.jpg]]]]] Uhm, well, we've been having some problems with that lately. Along the coast there are hawks waiting for the exausted pigeons. Your pigeon may have been someone's [[[OriginOfSpecies/msdbSearchText/title/occasional means|dinner]]]. [[[[[images/redTailHawk.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/pigeon.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/hawk.gif]]]]] [[[[[images/chikenBreastStrips.jpg]]]]] Furiously, he walks over to the beech, endlessly searching for his pigeon. With the eyes of the [[[life/msdbSearchText/story/scien|scien]]]tist that he is, he spots their wedding ring in a regurgitated pellet of a hawk. [[[[[images/weddingRing.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/owlPellet.jpg]]]]] All that is left of his pigeon are some seeds she picked up for the trip and never managed to digest. [[[[[images/pigeon.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/stomach.gif]]]]] [[[[[images/seeds.gif]]]]] [[[[[images/wheatSeeds.jpg]]]]] So he takes the seeds, and lets them germinate, and he sees the most beautiful flowers - which he knows well from his back yard. [[[[[images/daisies.jpg]]]]] So that is how they [[[OriginOfSpecies/msdbSearchText/title/Means of dispersal|migrated]]] to England! [[[[[images/water.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/bull.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/island.jpg]]]]] 1
[[Genetic diversity|Varaiation]]s are the differences between the individual cheetahs. Since all cheetahs are perfect, they also all look alike. [[[[[images/Cheetah.jpg|Cheetah]]]]] It is difficult to tell them apart, because all their qualities are perfect for the territory, and so they are all almost the same, among the individual cheetahs. But they are not exactly the same, ever. Lets us take an example. The cheetah is known as the only [[[Nekko|cat]]] in nature not to be able to retract its claws. (Nails). Since we know the cheetahs are nearly perfect in all respects, they must have all nails of much the same length. The perfect length nail. If tomorrow a cheetah is born with a nail slighly longer, or shorter for that matter, than this cheetah is not fit to survive in the territory as well as all the other cheetahs. [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 1|Variation]]] [[[[[images/cows.jpg]]]]] 1
A [[[[www.answers.com/replicator|replicator]]]] is a creature that can make copies, or replications of itself. When a woman bears a child, he is similar in charachter to his mother and father: he is [[human|human]]. Humans are replicators. When a replicator makes a copy of itself, there are now two of them. Next time, both will replicated and there will be 4. Next time, there will be 8. Next time 16. At the tenth time, 1024. At the 20th time, about a million. At the 30th time, a billion. If adam and eve bore four children, doubling their quantity, and so on with each generation, there would be a billion people on [[earth|earth]] in thirty [[generation|generations]]. The [[cockroach|Cockroach]] female, in her lifetime, will lay up to a million eggs, in some cockroach [[species|species]]. Try to imagine this: One female cockroach would live and die in about one year, leaving a million cockroches. Each of the half a million females will do the same next year, leaving 500 billion cockroaches around. Next year there will be more. In [[[TheOriginOfSpecies|The Origin Of Species]]], [[Charles Darwin|Charles Darwin]] gives a long and detailed account of how [[[OriginOfSpecies/msdbSearchText/title/geometrical|quickly]]] different animals in Nature would grow to cover the [[earth|earth]]. [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 3|Geometrical powers of increase]]] [[[[[images/CheetahLove.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/fetus.jpg]]]]] 1
All this long [[Jurassic Park|story]] about the mosquito was to tell us through the eyes of Hollywood Evolution followers, that which can be as easily accomplished by taking a blood sample from a living bird. [[[[[images/JurassicPark.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/dinoBird.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/bird.jpg]]]]] How on earth did Hollywood manage to advertize the dinosaurs so well, while hiding the fact they are all around us, still ruling the planet, with air coverage any army would yearn to have? [[[[[images/dinosaur.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/dinosaurs.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/TRex.gif]]]]] [[[[[images/JeffAndTRex.gif]]]]] The [[bird|bird]]s [[Origin_of_birds|descended]] from the [[Dinosaur|Dinosaur]]s, and from a blood sample of a living bird, you can get the [[genome|genome]] of a dinosaur. [[[[[images/BirdOnCherryTree.gif]]]]] [[[[[images/TRex.gif]]]]] [[[[[images/dna.gif]]]]] [[[[[images/genome.jpg]]]]] While [[Douglas Adams|Douglas Adams]] and [[Isaac Asimov|Isaac Asimov]] give Evolution Theory good publicity, shadowy movie forces are at work corrupting their marketing. [[Douglas Adams|Douglas Adams]] does not need to scientifically show how animals can be trained to [[restaurant at the end of the universe|deliver themselves as food]], even though science knows, that from Evolution theory, it makes perfect sense. [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 1|domestication]]] [[[[[images/cows.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/CowClone.jpg]]]]] 1
Back to our Cheetahs, if a mutation occurs that is good for the cheetah's survival, there would evolve a slightly better Cheetah. This new species is likely, and in most cases will, compete more successfully with the older type Cheetahs in the territory, on the resources the territory provides. In time the lesser qualified cheetahs will diminish in number and slowly disappear, leaving the territory with just this one new species instead. We will call this new species a Cheetah, and say the cheetah has evolved by some small fine quality of survival. Since the lesser cheetah is now extinct, there should be no reason why we would change its name in the classification of the animals of Nature. But if all the while, in another territory, some other cheetahs linger, and if this territory is sufficiently separate so that the better cheetahs can not reach it, then the older species did not become extinct, and we would need to name the new species, once we discover that now there are two of them. We might call it the long-nailed-cheetah. This process by which [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbcat/chapter/chapter 4|Nature selects]]] the better replications [[[DarwinCall|Darwin calls]]] [[[[evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_25|Natural Selection]]]]. [[[[[images/naturalSelection.gif]]]]] 1
Common Evolution Magic Tricks Exposed * [[Human_evolution|Man]] did not decend from the [[ape|ape]] * [[Godzilla|Godzilla]] can not evolve from nuclear waste * Neither Apes nor [[Primate|Primate]]s can (again) evolve to the smarts of [[Planet_Of_The_Apes|The Planet Of The Apes]] * [[human|human]]s can not grow new arms from nuclear waste as in [[planet of the apes|planet of the apes]] 17, and [[Total Recall|Total Recall]] * Even [[Science Fiction|Science Fiction]] can hardly read the genes of two living dinosaurs from the [[genome|gene map]] of just one. [[Cinema_of_the_United_States|Hollywood]], markets [[mutation|mutation]]s as the tiny little [[gene|gene]] [[sourcerer|sourcerer]]s of [[Nature|Nature]]. It is not clear whether the film makers are ignorant, or are just greedily un[[education|education]]al. [[[TheOriginOfSpecies|The Origin of Species]]] [[[[[images/Godzilla.jpg|Godzilla]]]]] [[[[[images/zeedonk.jpg|zeedonk]]]]] [[[[[images/Cheetah.jpg|Cheetah]]]]] [[[[[images/etfk.jpg|Evolution Theory For Kids]]]]] 1
Darwin looked at [[[[travel.mongabay.com/malaysia/orangs.html|some orangutans]]]], and noticed something very odd: The hands of the individual orangutans are noticibly very different from one another. This means that the orangutans can not possibly all be as perfect as our cheetahs. If they are so different than one another, even if just in the shape and length of their huge hands, then some orangutans must have better hands than others, and so they are not all perfect. Not only that, when father and mother orangutan replicate a new baby orangutan, his new hands will also surely be different than all the others. After all, his mother and father did not have the same hands to begin with. But if the orangutans were ever perfect, than the struggle for existence would have kept them perfect. And so we know, that they were not perfect to begin with. In fact, they were probably perfect a long time ago. perfect for some other territory, or some other climate. Then, and there, they were probably like any other ordinary hands of other apes, which among the other individuals in the same [[species|species]], all look about the same. Then something happened. It could be just a change in the territory, that made the very small differences in the hands be selected suddenly as better, and so cause baby orangutans to continue carrying the genes of hands that are different, blending with the rest, creating much variation. It is also possible that a small chance mutation was somehow beneficial for survival, and so it stuck around to the next generation. Some of the new born Orangutans had some of this new fine quality, and some not. Again, there will be high variation. This is how we came to the present day, with the hands of the orangutan still imperfect. Death comes just as quickly, and the better orangutans with the better hands will survive. In time, the perfect hands will be selected and remain, while the lesser hands will disappear. By then the hands will all look alike. We will then call the hands of the orangutan perfect again. Variation and perfection in nature are exact opposites. The higher the variation, the lower the perfection, and vice versa. [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 5|Laws of Variation]]] [[[[[images/orang_05.jpg]]]]] 1
Go [[Slaughterhouse|see]] for yourself. [[Douglas Adams|Douglas Adams]] can easily make fun of [[Evolution|Evolution]] so well for the same reason [[Woody Allen|Woody Allen]] and [[Mel Brooks|Mel Brooks]] do it to the [[Jew|Jew]]s. [[Douglas Adams|Douglas Adams]] is part of the [[Origin of Species|community]], and he understands it well. He can easily make a convincing argument: Lets pretend you are a cow. If you are a trouble maker, the farmer will want to eat you when you are young, so that you won't make trouble for too long. Since the farmer wants you dead sooner or later, if you actually want to die, this means you are well behaved, and the farmer can eat you some other day. Wanting to die will keep you alive. If the farmer has a nack for dancing cows, like some [[Horse|Horse]] [[Breeding|breeders]] do, then if you are a slighly more of a dancing cow than the rest, you will be liked, survive, and leave baby cows with dancing [[gene|genes]]. Those youngsters who do not dance as well, will have to be eaten sooner so that you can stay alive while the farmer is not hungry. Pretense aside, the [[gene|gene]]s that will be passed on to the next generation are those of the better [[Slaughterhouse|Slaughterhouse]] dancers, even if everyone at first - [[Domestication|some]] 30 thousand years ago - they all danced violently out and away. This type of [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 1|domestication]]] over many generations is termed [[Artificial_selection|Artificial Selection]]. [[[[[images/mother-cow-and-calf.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/CowClone.jpg]]]]] 1
How did this cheetah come about to have such a deformed fingernail to cause its early death? Well, lets ignore for the moment the story of the [[Orangutan|Orangutan]]. We will get to him next. With the perfect cheetahs, the new born cheetahs are supposed to all have the correct fingernails. Otherwise, how can we say they are perfect? When mother and father cheetah replicate, they do not always do an exact job of copying all the charachters to the baby cheetah. A mistake in the copying of the plan of the body, can cause a nail to grow a bit too long or too short. We call this mistake a [[mutation|Mutation]]. New mutations occur all the time. But since the cheetahs are already perfect, all mutations are bad for survival, and so when death comes along, it will almost always pick up the mutations first. And death does come along plenty. This much we have already calculated with us humans and the cockroaches. Evolution is very effective in [[extermination|exterminating]] mutations, and like all else, will select only the very few that are beneficial to their individual owner body. So for the cheetah for instance, since the time we called it a Cheetah, there have been many many mutations with many cheetahs. None of those survived. [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 5|Laws of Variation]]] [[[[[images/orang_05.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/mutations.jpg]]]]] 1
If the territory is not stable, or has changed and is no longer supporting its [[resident|residents]] as before, there will be suddenly too much death, and the number of orangutans in the territory will not stay the same. It will be less and less from generation to generation, and eventually all the orangutans in the territory might disappear. If this was the last territory on earth where there were orangutans, they will now become extinct. The process of extinction works independent of the process of perfection, though it is part of the same evolutionary process, mostly driven by high death rates in both cases. While it will take a long time with many generations for the hands of the oragutan to become perfect, the [[Orangutan|Orangutan]] is an [[endangered species|endangered species]], and are likely to become [[extinction|extinct]] in just a few generations. [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 4|Extinction caused by Natural Selection]]] [[[[[images/ExtinctDodoBird.jpg]]]]] 1
If you made one mistake and died for it, you are very lucky. You lived longer then the average in your species. Most creatures born will die before they had the chance to make the first mistake. For example, in a violent sweep of a bird's nest by the wind, where one egg happened to have been left intact, it is shear luck that will decide which egg gets to stay alive. The eggs are all about the same, and have no advantage over one another, to better survive this situtation. Such is the case with all neweborns in nature, plants and animals alike. It is rare, but it is important to note, that in some cases, the eggs are quite different then one another. For example, some might have a harder shell than others. In this case, the harder shelled eggs have a better chance of surviving. It is more likely then, that the egg that survived is one of the harder ones, yet several hard shell eggs also died, even though they have not made the mistake of having a soft shell. If the shell of the egg is different from one egg to another, we say it has high variation, or low perfection. The probabilities of luck and its effect on the evolution of species can be calculated and observed. The results in this respect are sometimes called: [[Genetic drift|Genetic Drift]]. [[[[[images/bird-nest.jpg]]]]] 1
Many cheetahs will die young, even if they are perfect. This cheetah, with the imperfect nail, will almost surely be one of the many cheetahs who die young, in their fights with each other for the food animals in the territory. All animals and plants always compete with each other to stay alive. For the most part, cheetahs fight with cheetahs to see who can chase the deer better, while the deer fight with the other deer to see who can run away from the cheetahs faster. It is not a war between the cheetahs and the deer. Neither side will ever win. The cheetahs will remain 70, and likewise the dear will keep their numbers. This constant undeclared fight among the individual cheetahs Darwin calls [[[[bioinf.may.ie/crann/darwin/origin/oos3_1.htm|The Struggle For Existence]]]] [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 3|Strugle for Existence]]] [[[[[images/CheetahLove.jpg]]]]] 1
The cheetah food always replicates and dies in the mouths of the cheetahs. The cheetahs replicate and can never find enough food for the many replicators, and so most of them also die, of hunger. All the other animals and plants in the territory replicate. They all compete with each other on the resources. Because they keep replicating, the resources are never enough. A single adult living cheetah is responsible for the deaths of many food animals. Many of all creatures [[[life/msdbSearchText/title/Story|die]]], most when they are very young. In [[[OriginOfSpecies|The Origin Of Species]]], [[Charles Darwin|Charles Darwin]] gives a long and detailed account of how [[[OriginOfSpecies/msdbSearchText/title/geometrical|quickly]]] different animals in Nature would grow to cover the [[earth|earth]], if it were not for this high death rate. [[[TheOriginOfSpecies/msdbCat/chapter/Chapter 3|Struggle for Existence]]] [[[[[images/CheetahHuntingGazelle.jpg]]]]] 1
The cheetah is perfect. Darwin says perfect means there is nothing that can be better about it. Better, meaning, bettering its chances of survival. If the cheetahs were bettered in any way, there would be more of them in the territory. Since they are the same 70 cheetahs for some millions of years now, we know they are not better in any way, and have not changed since a long time ago. This means that for this environment, they are perfect, and so they do not need to change at all. [[Charles Darwin|Darwin]] calls it: Exactly as perfect as needed. [[[[[images/Cheetah.jpg|Cheetah]]]]] 1
The territory is an [[ecosystem|ecosystem]]. It is supplied and is being discarded of steady and predicatable [[Natural_resource|resources]]. Let us say it is just light from the [[sun|sun]], [[water|water]], and [[minerals|minerals]]. In [[Nature|Nature]], this is never really so simple. But usually there are territories that are sort of separate where things don't change so much most of time. In [[Scientific_method|Science]], we look at simple [[model|model]]s like the [[ecosystem|ecosystem]] so that we can analyze our findings without worrying too much about things that we think will not affect our conclusions to a significant degree. And so this set of predictable resources can support exactly 70 [[Cheetah|Cheetah]]s in our imaginary territory. There are many other living creatures and plants in this territory, some help our cheetahs, some fight it, some are their food. But the ecosystem is stable, with stable resources, and all the other creatures and plants, like our cheetahs, will keep a stable quantity. The animals who are food for the cheetahs will only replicate so much before the cheetahs eat them, and so they can feed just those 70 cheetahs and no more. And so with the food animals, there will be no more than what the cheetahs will allow and let live, and no less, because otherwise they will replicate until there are just enough. There are seventy cheetahs in the territory today. Seventy where here 70 years ago. And also 700 years ago. [[[[[images/CheetahFamily.jpg]]]]] 1
This is why it is believed that [[Charles Darwin|Charles Darwin]] developed most of his theories during his travel aboard the [[The_Voyage_of_the_Beagle|HMS Beagle]], and in the [[Falkland Islands|Falkland Islands]] and the [[Galapagos Islands|Galapagos Islands]], where he found many species very much alike other species in the near continent of [[South America|South America]], but those species were not present in England and the rest of Europe in anywhere remotely the same level of resemblance. This is the slow process by which new species are created. Tipycally, it starts with the migration of an individual to a new territory, or with a gradual change in climate, or by a single abrupt change in environmental conditions, later to leave the teritories as stable as before, with a new set of condition for the contained organisms to compete over. Mutations are always there and plentiful. They don't make evolution happen. [[Natural Selection|Natural Selection]] makes evolution happen by selecting the Right [[mutation|mutation]]s, discarding all others. [[[[[images/amoeba.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/fish.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/Reptile.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/Cheetah.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/orangutan2.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/wildlife.jpg]]]]] [[[[[images/apeMan.jpg]]]]] 1