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Wed, Jun 20 2007 60 Mutations How did this cheetah come about to have such a deformed
fingernail to cause its early death?

Well, lets ignore for the moment the story of the Orangutan.
We will get to him next.

With the perfect cheetahs, the new born cheetahs are supposed to all have the correct fingernails.
Otherwise, how can we say they are perfect?

When mother and father cheetah replicate,
they do not always do an exact job of copying
all the charachters to the baby cheetah.

A mistake in the copying of the plan of the body,
can cause a nail to grow a bit too long or too short.

We call this mistake a Mutation.

New mutations occur all the time.

But since the cheetahs are already perfect,
all mutations are bad for survival,
and so when death comes along,
it will almost always pick up the mutations first.

And death does come along plenty.

This much we have already calculated with us humans and the cockroaches.

Evolution is very effective in exterminating mutations,
and like all else, will select only the very few that are beneficial to their individual owner body.

So for the cheetah for instance,
since the time we called it a Cheetah,
there have been many many mutations with many cheetahs.
None of those survived.

Laws of Variation
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Wed, Jun 20 2007 65 Orangutan Darwin looked at some orangutans,
and noticed something very odd:

The hands of the individual orangutans are noticibly very
different from one another.

This means that the orangutans can not possibly
all be as perfect as our cheetahs.
If they are so different than one another,
even if just in the shape and length of
their huge hands,
then some orangutans must have better hands than others,
and so they are not all perfect.

Not only that, when father and mother orangutan
replicate a new baby orangutan,
his new hands will also surely be different than all
the others.
After all, his mother and father did not have the same
hands to begin with.

But if the orangutans were ever perfect,
than the struggle for existence would have kept
them perfect.

And so we know,
that they were not perfect to begin with.

In fact, they were probably perfect a long time ago.
perfect for some other territory, or some other climate.
Then, and there,
they were probably like any other
ordinary hands of other apes,
which among the other individuals in the same species,
all look about the same.

Then something happened.
It could be just a change in the territory,
that made the very small differences in the hands
be selected suddenly as better,
and so cause baby orangutans to continue
carrying the genes of hands that are different,
blending with the rest,
creating much variation.

It is also possible that a small chance mutation
was somehow beneficial for survival,
and so it stuck around to the next generation.
Some of the new born Orangutans had some of this
new fine quality, and some not.
Again, there will be high variation.

This is how we came to the present day,
with the hands of the orangutan still imperfect.

Death comes just as quickly, and the better orangutans
with the better hands will survive.

In time, the perfect hands will be selected and remain,
while the lesser hands will disappear.

By then the hands will all look alike.
We will then call the hands of the orangutan perfect again.

Variation and perfection in nature are exact opposites.
The higher the variation, the lower the perfection,
and vice versa.

Laws of Variation
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Wed, Jun 20 2007 68 Extinction If the territory is not stable,
or has changed and is no longer supporting
its residents as before,
there will be suddenly too much death,
and the number of orangutans in the territory
will not stay the same.

It will be less and less from generation to generation,
and eventually all the orangutans in the territory
might disappear.

If this was the last territory on earth
where there were orangutans,
they will now become extinct.

The process of extinction works independent of
the process of perfection,
though it is part of the same evolutionary process,
mostly driven by high death rates in both cases.

While it will take a long time with many generations
for the hands of the oragutan to become perfect,
the Orangutan is an endangered species,
and are likely to become extinct in just a few generations.

Extinction caused by Natural Selection
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Wed, Jun 20 2007 80 Evolution This is why it is believed that Charles Darwin developed most
of his theories during his travel aboard the HMS Beagle,
and in the Falkland Islands and the Galapagos Islands,
where he found many species very much alike other species in
the near continent of South America,
but those species were not present in England
and the rest of Europe in anywhere remotely the same level of

This is the slow process by which new species are created.

Tipycally, it starts with the migration of an individual to
a new territory, or with a gradual change in climate,
or by a single abrupt change in environmental conditions,
later to leave the teritories as stable as before,
with a new set of condition for the contained organisms to
compete over.

Mutations are always there and plentiful.

They don't make evolution happen.

Natural Selection makes evolution happen by selecting
the Right mutations, discarding all others.

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